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Dr. Chad Bolding

Professor
  • Ph.D., Forest Engineering, Oregon State University, 2006; M.F., Silviculture, Oregon State University, 2005; M.S., Forest Operations, Auburn University, 2002; B.S., Forestry, Auburn University, 2000

Dr. Chad Bolding

Dr. Chad Bolding
Cheatham Hall, RM 228-A
310 West Campus Dr.
Blacksburg, VA 24061

Forest operations, harvesting, wood supply chain efficiency, and biomass utilization.  

Ph.D. Assistantship in Forest Operations

  • FREC 3714 Forest Harvesting
  • FREC 3734 Forest Fiber Supply
  • FREC 4714 Harvesting Systems Evaluation
  • FREC/NR 4984 SS: Professional Skills in Natural Resources
  • FREC 5714G Advanced Harvesting Systems Evaluation

My research program is primarily based in the following areas within Forest Operations and Business:

  1. Evaluating forest operations with regard to safety, productivity, planning, and logistics,
  2. Creating tools to improve the efficiency and profitability of forest operations,
  3. Analyzing forest business issues such as supply chain management and biomass utilization opportunities and challenges, and evaluating the environmental impacts of forest operations activities.

Current research projects include:

  1. Assessing the Characteristics and Supporting Factors that Lead to Logging Machine Value Loss (Funded by: Virginia Tech Forest Operations and Business Research Cooperative),
  2. Monitoring and Quantifying the Effects of State Forestry BMP Programs on Soil Erosion and Sediment Delivery for the Southeastern United States (Funded by: Sustainable Forestry Initiative and the National Council for Air and Stream Improvement),
  3. Advancing Forest Logging Residue Harvesting and Collection Logistics in the Eastern U.S. (Funded by: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture), 
  4. Mid-Atlantic Sustainable Biomass for Value-added Products Consortium (MASBio) (Funded by: USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture), and
  5. Landscape Level Restoration of Shortleaf Pine/Oak Stands in the Appalachian Region (Funded by: USDA Forest Service)
  • Aust, W.M., M.C. Bolding, and S.M. Barrett. 2020. Silviculture in forested wetlands: summary of current forest operations, potential effects, and long-term experiments. Wetlands 40(1):21-36.
  • Cristan, R., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, and S.M. Barrett. 2019. Estimated sediment protection efficiencies for increasing levels of best management practices on forest harvests in the Piedmont, USA. Forests 10(997):1-21.
  • Dangle, C.L., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, S.M. Barrett, and E.B. Schilling. 2019. Best management practices influence modeled erosion rates at forest haul road stream crossings in Virginia. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 55(5):1169-1182.
  • Garren, A.M., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, A.C. Moura, and S.M. Barrett. 2019. Soil disturbance effects from tethered forwarding on steep slopes in Brazilian eucalyptus plantations. Forests 10(721):1-21.
  • Cole, N.B., S.M. Barrett, M.C. Bolding, and W.M. Aust. 2019. An analysis of fatal log truck crashes in the United States from 2011 through 2015. International Journal of Forest Engineering 30(2):121-131.
  • Dangle, C.L., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, E.B. Schilling, and M. Poirot. 2019. Characteristics, predicted erosion, and costs for different levels of forestry best management practices at skidder and truck stream crossings in the mountains, piedmont, and coastal plains of Virginia, USA. International Journal of Forest Engineering 30(2):76-86.
  • Howell, R., W.M. Aust, and M.C. Bolding. 2019. Forestry best management practices and modeled erosion on planned and logger-selected bladed skid trails in the ridge and valley region, Virginia, USA. International Journal of Forest Engineering 30(2):68-75.
  • Dangle, C.L., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, and E.B. Schilling. 2019. The effectiveness of forestry best management practices at skidder stream crossings in Virginia. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 74(3):199-208.
  • Lang, A.J., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, K.J. McGuire, and E.B. Schilling. 2018. Best management practices influence sediment delivery from road stream crossings to mountain and piedmont streams. Forest Science 64(6):682-695.
  • Cristan, R., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, and J.F. Munsell. 2018. National status of state developed and implemented forestry best management practices for protecting water quality in the United States. Forest Ecology and Management 418:73-84.
  • Parkhurst, B.M., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, and E.A. Carter. 2018. Soil response to skidder trafficking and slash application. International Journal of Forest Engineering 29(1):31-40.
  • Vinson, J.A., S.M. Barrett, W.M. Aust, and M.C. Bolding. 2017. Comparing the suitability of soil erosion models for the evaluation of bladed skid trail BMPs in the Southern Appalachians. Forests 8(482):1-18.
  • Barrett, S.M., M.C. Bolding, and J.F. Munsell. 2017. Characteristics of logging businesses across Virginia’s diverse physiographic regions. Forests 8(468):1-13.
  • Kim, S., M.A. Nussbaum, A.L. Schoenfisch, S.M. Barrett, M.C. Bolding, and D.E. Dickerson. 2017. Occupational safety and health concerns in logging: a cross-sectional assessment in Virginia. Forests 8(440):1-12.
  • Lang, A.J., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, K.J. McGuire, and E.B. Schilling. (in press). Forestry best management practices for erosion control in haul road ditches near stream crossings. Accepted by: Journal of Soil and Water Conservation.
  • Neaves, C.M., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, C.M. Trettin, and E.D. Vance. 2017. Soil properties in site prepared loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) stands 25 years after wet weather harvesting in the lower Atlantic coastal plain. Forest Ecology and Management 404:344-353.
  • Warrington, B.M., W.M. Aust, S.M. Barrett, W.M. Ford, C.A. Dolloff, E.B. Schilling, T.B. Wigley, and M.C. Bolding. 2017. Forestry best management practices relationships with aquatic and riparian fauna: a review. Forests 8(331):1-16.
  • Vinson, J.A., S.M. Barrett, W.M. Aust, and M.C. Bolding. 2017. Evaluation of bladed skid trail closure methods in the ridge and valley region. Forest Science 63(4):432-440.
  • Neaves, C.M., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, C.M. Trettin, and E.D. Vance. 2017. Loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity 23 years after wet site harvesting and site preparation in the lower Atlantic Coastal Plain. Forest Ecology and Management 401:207-214.
  • Saulnier, W.J., M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, and S.P. Prisley. 2017. Characteristics of Virginia’s private forest landowners and their attitudes toward harvesting. Forest Products Journal 67(1/2):69-80.
  • Lang, A.J., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, K.J. McGuire, and E.B. Schilling. 2017. Comparing sediment trap data with erosion models for evaluation of forest haul road stream crossing approaches. Transactions of the ASABE 60(2):393-408.
  • Conrad, J.L., IV, M.M. Vokoun, S.P. Prisley, and M.C. Bolding. 2017. Barriers to logging production and efficiency in Wisconsin. International Journal of Forest Engineering 28(1):57-65.
  • Hanzelka, N.C., J. Sullivan, M.C. Bolding, and S.M. Barrett. 2016. Economic feasibility of utilizing pre-commercially thinned southern pine as a woody biomass energy source. Forest Products Journal 66(5/6):354-361.
  • Morris, B.C., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, K.J. McGuire, E.B. Schilling, and J. Sullivan. 2016. Differing levels of forestry best management practices at stream crossing structures affect sediment delivery and installation costs. Water 8(92):1-18.
  • Barrett, S.M., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, W.A. Lakel III, and J.F. Munsell. 2016. Implementation of forestry best management practices on biomass and conventional harvesting operations in Virginia. Water 8(89):1-9.
  • Hanzelka, N.C., M.C. Bolding, J. Sullivan, and S.M. Barrett. 2016. Productivity and costs of utilizing small-diameter stems in a biomass-only harvest. International Journal of Forest Engineering 27(1):43-52.
  • Barrett, S.M., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, W.A. Lakel III, and J.F. Munsell. 2016. Estimated erosion, ground cover, and best management practices audit details for postharvest evaluations of biomass and conventional clearcut harvests. Journal of Forestry 114(1):9-16.
  • Cristan, R., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, J.F. Munsell, and E.B. Schilling. 2016. Effectiveness of forestry best management practices in the United States: literature review. Forest Ecology and Management 360:133-151.
  • Lang, A.J., R. Cristan, W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, B.D. Strahm, E.D. Vance, and E.T. Roberts, Jr. 2016. Long-term effects of wet and dry site harvesting on soil physical properties mitigated by mechanical site preparation in coastal plain loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations. Forest Ecology and Management 359:162-173.
  • Nolan, L., W.M. Aust, S.M. Barrett, M.C. Bolding, K. Brown, and K.J. McGuire. 2015. Estimating costs and effectiveness of upgrades in forestry best management practices for stream crossings. Water 7:6946-6966.
  • Lang, A.J., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, S.M. Barrett, K.J. McGuire, and W.A. Lakel III. 2015. Streamside management zones compromised by stream crossings, legacy gullies, and over-harvest in the Piedmont. Journal of the American Water Resources Association 51(4):1153-1164.
  • Aust, W.M., M.C. Bolding, and S.M. Barrett. 2015. Best management practices for low-volume forest roads in the Piedmont region: summary and implications of research. Journal of the Transportation Review Board 2472(1):51-55.
  • Barrett, S.M., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, and J.F. Munsell. 2014. Characteristics of logging businesses that harvest biomass for energy production. Forest Products Journal 64(7/8):265-272.
  • Passauer, D.P., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, B.D. Strahm, J.M. Burger, S.C. Patterson, E. Vance, and E.T. Roberts Jr. 2013. Potential above-ground biomass losses from severe soil rutting during wet weather timber harvests of coastal plain loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) plantations mitigated by mechanical site preparation. Forest Ecology and Management 307:266-273.
  • Conrad, J.L., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, R.L. Smith, and A. Horcher. 2013. Harvesting productivity and costs when utilizing energywood from pine plantations of the southern Coastal Plain USA. Biomass and Bioenergy 52:85-95.
  • Wear, L.R., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, B.D. Strahm, and C.A. Dolloff. 2013. Effectiveness of best management practices for sediment reduction at operational forest stream crossings. Forest Ecology and Management 289:551-561.
  • Wade, C.R., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, and W.A. Lakel III. 2012. Comparison of five erosion control techniques for bladed skid trails in Virginia. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 36(4):191-197.
  • Sawyers, B.C., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, and W.A. Lakel III. 2012. Effectiveness and implementation costs of overland skid trail closure techniques in the Virginia piedmont. Journal of Soil and Water Conservation 67(4):298-308.
  • Wade, C.R., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, W.A. Lakel III, and E.B. Schilling. 2012. Comparing sediment trap data with the USLE-Forest, RUSLE2, and WEPP-Road erosion models for evaluation of bladed skid trail BMPs. Transactions of ASABE 55(2):403-414.
  • Barrett, S.M., M.C. Bolding, and J.F. Munsell. 2012. Evaluating continuing education needs and program effectiveness using a survey of Virginia’s SHARP Logger program participants. Journal of Extension [Online], 50(1) Article 1RIB8. Available at: http://www.joe.org/joe/2012february/rb8.php
  • McKee, S.E., L.A. Shenk, M.C. Bolding, and W.M. Aust. 2012. Stream crossing methods, costs, and closure best management practices for Virginia loggers. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 36(1):33-37.
  • Conrad, J.L., W.S. Ford, M.C. Groover, M.C. Bolding, and W.M. Aust. 2012. Virginia Tech forest road and bladed skid trail cost estimation method. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 36(1):26-32.
  • Munsell, J.F., S.M. Barrett, and M.C. Bolding. 2011. An exploratory study of biomass harvesting among logging firms in Virginia and North Carolina. Forest Science 57(5):427-434.
  • Aust, W.M., M.B. Carroll, M.C. Bolding, and C.A. Dolloff. 2011. Operational forest stream crossings effects on water quality in the Virginia Piedmont. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 35(3):123-130.
  • Worrell, W.C., M.C. Bolding, and W.M. Aust. 2011. Potential soil erosion following skyline yarding versus tracked skidding on bladed trails in the Appalachian region of Virginia. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 35(3):131-135.
  • Conrad, J.L. and M.C. Bolding. 2011. Virginia’s woody biomass market: opportunities and implications. Southern Journal of Applied Forestry 35(2):67-72.
  • Conrad, J.L., M.C. Bolding, R.L. Smith, and W.M. Aust. 2011. Wood-energy market impact on competition, procurement practices, and profitability of landowners and forest products industry in the U.S. south. Biomass and Bioenergy 35(1):280-287.
  • Lakel III, W.A., W.M. Aust, M.C. Bolding, C.A. Dolloff, P. Keyser, and R. Feldt. 2010. Sediment trapping by streamside management zones of various widths after forest harvest and site preparation. Forest Science 56(6):541-551.
  • Conrad, J.L., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, and R.L. Smith. 2010. Wood-to-energy expansion, forest ownership changes, and mill closure: Consequences for U.S. South’s wood supply chain. Forest Policy and Economics 12(6):399-406.
  • Bolding, M.C., S.M. Barrett, J.F. Munsell, and M.C. Groover. 2010. Characteristics of Virginia’s logging businesses in a changing timber market. Forest Products Journal 60(1):86-93.
  • Bolding, M.C., L.D. Kellogg, and C.T. Davis. 2009. Soil compaction and visual disturbance following an integrated mechanical forest fuel reduction operation in southwest Oregon. International Journal of Forest Engineering 20(2):47-56.
  • Moldenhauer, M.C. and M.C. Bolding. 2009. Parcelization of South Carolina’s private forestland: Loggers’ reactions to a growing threat. Forest Products Journal 59(6):37-43.
  • Bolding, M.C., L.D. Kellogg, and C.T. Davis. 2009. Productivity and costs of an integrated mechanical forest fuel reduction operation in southwest Oregon. Forest Products Journal 59(3):35-46.
  • Bolding, M.C. and B.L. Lanford. 2005. Wildfire fuel harvesting and resultant biomass utilization using a cut-to-length / small chipper system. Forest Products Journal 55(12):181-189.
  • Murphy, G.E., H.D. Marshall, and M.C. Bolding. 2004. Adaptive control of bucking on harvesters to meet order book constraints. Forest Products Journal 54(12):114-121.
  • Bolding, M.C. and R.W. Farrell. 2019. Examining the relationship between forestry best management practices and estimated erosion/sedimentations across the southeastern US. Invited joint presentation with the Virginia State Forester (Rob Farrell) at the Sustainable Forestry Initiative Annual Conference in Richmond, Virginia. October 24, 2019.
  • Bolding, M.C. 2019. Conducting sustainable forest operations while minimizing environmental impacts: a compilation of research. Keynote Presentation. In: Proc. 52nd Annual International Symposium on Forest Mechanization (FORMEC) and joint 42nd Annual Council on Forest Engineering Meeting (COFE); Sopron, Hungary & Forchtenstein, Austria. October 6-9, 2019.
  • Garren, A.M., M.C. Bolding, W.M. Aust, A.C. Moura, and S.M. Barrett. 2019. Soil disturbance from tethered forwarding on steep slopes in Brazil. In: Proc. 52nd Annual International Symposium on Forest Mechanization (FORMEC) and joint 42nd Annual Council on Forest Engineering Meeting (COFE); Sopron, Hungary & Forchtenstein, Austria. October 6-9, 2019.
  • Fielding, Jonah A.H. May 2020. Estimated erosion rates by forest operation and physiographic region in the southeastern United States. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Hawks, Brent S. May 2019. Four-year effects of high levels of forestry best management practices on observed stream sediments and streamside management zone blow-throughs. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Garren, Austin M. May 2019. Soil disturbance effects from tethered forwarding on steep slopes in Brazilian Eucalyptus plantations. MF Paper, Virginia Tech.
  • Dangle, Chandler L. April 2018. Efficacy of operational stream crossing best management practices on truck roads and skid trails in the Mountains, Piedmont, and Coastal Plain of Virginia. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Neaves, Charlie M. April 2017. Long term effects of wet weather harvesting and site preparation on soil properties and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) productivity in the lower Atlantic coastal plain. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Lang, Albert J. May 2016. Sediment delivery from forest haul roads at stream crossings as influenced by road attributes. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Cristan, Richie R. April 2016. Effectiveness of state developed and implemented forestry best management practices in the United States. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Parkhurst, Brian M. November 2015. Soil response to skidder and dozer traffic as indicated by soil stress residuals. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Morris, Brian C. May 2015. Effectiveness, cost, and implications of forest haul road stream crossing structures and best management practices in Virginia. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech.
  • Hanzelka, Nathan, C. May 2015. The prevalence and operational feasibility of utilizing pre-commercially thinned pine as a woody biomass energy source. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Jay Sullivan).
  • Saulnier, Will J. February 2015. Characteristics of Virginia’s private forest landowners and their attitudes toward harvesting. MF Paper, Virginia Tech.
  • Cockram, Drew G. May 2014. An analysis of unique biomass harvesting strategies in steep terrain of Virginia. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Scott Barrett).
  • Lang, Albert J. November 2013. Streamside management zone failures associated with stream crossings, gullies, and harvests in the Piedmont. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Barrett, Scott M. June 2013. Operational adaptations and environmental implications on integrated biomass harvesting operations. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Roberts, E. Talcott. June 2012. A ten year analysis of timber harvesting injuries in the Southeastern United States. MF Paper, Virginia Tech.
  • Wear, Laura R. May 2012. Skid trail stream crossing closure techniques for protecting water quality. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Groover, Miles C. December 2011. A comparison of chipper productivity, chip characteristics, and nutrient removals from two woody biomass harvesting treatments. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech.
  • Chandler, Josh L. November 2011. Biomass harvesting effects on soil physical properties in the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. MF Paper, Virginia Tech.
  • Conrad, Joseph L. August 2011. Anticipated impact of a vibrant wood-to-energy market on the U.S. South’s wood supply chain. PhD Dissertation, Virginia Tech.
  • Sawyers, B. Clay. May 2011. Effectiveness and implementation costs of overland skid trail closure techniques in the Virginia Piedmont. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Wade, Charlie R. December 2010. Evaluation of bladed skid trail erosion BMPs and determination of erosion model accuracy and applicability. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Ford, Will S. May 2010. A comprehensive literature review of the impacts of forest harvesting systems on Appalachian hardwood stands. MF Paper, Virginia Tech. (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Dowling, Tripp N. May 2010. An analysis of log truck turn times at harvest sites and mill facilities. MS Thesis, Virginia Tech.
  • Conrad, Joseph L. May 2010. Virginia’s woody biomass market: opportunities and implications. MF Paper, Virginia Tech.
  • Moldenhauer, Matthew C. February 2009. Parcelization of South Carolina’s private forestland: loggers’ reactions to a growing threat. MFR Paper, Clemson University.
  • Lucas, Aaron C. January 2008. An assessment tool for examining impacts of recreational forest trail use on stream crossings. MFR Paper, Clemson University.
  • Brent Hawks (PhD): Potential effects of forestry best management practices and implementation rates on soil and water resources in the Southeastern United States (Co-chair with Dr. Mike Aust).
  • Austin Garren (PhD): Evaluating energywood operations in the lower mid-Atlantic region of the United States.
  • Emily Barrett (MF): Assessing the characteristics and supporting factors that lead to logging machine value loss.

Professional Memberships

  • Council on Forest Engineering
  • Society of American Foresters
  • Virginia Forestry Association
  • Xi Sigma Pi Honor Society

Professional Activities and Honors

  • 2020 Outstanding Graduate Student Mentor Award, College of Natural Resources and Environment, Virginia Tech - Awarded by the Graduate School to one faculty member in each college.
  • Virginia Tech Daily Video. 2019. Featured in a group of six videos entitled: “Solutions to help the environment”. The video entitled: “Becoming better stewards of the forest” highlights biomass utilization research by M.C. Bolding funded by the USDA Agriculture and Forestry Research Initiative. Featured in the Virginia Tech daily email on December 12, 2019.  https://vtnews.vt.edu/campaign-videos/complex-environment.html?utm_source=cmpgn_news&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=vtUnirelNewsDailyCMP_121219-fs1
  • Bolding, M.C. 2019. Radio interview on Virginia Public Radio (NPR) (WVTF) with Robbie Harris entitled “Using Every Twig; USDA Sustainable Logging Study to Spur Renewable Energy”. Aired August 29, 2019.  https://www.wvtf.org/
  • Virginia Tech Press Release. 2019. “Grant helps Virginia Tech scientists find new ways to utilize secondary logging materials”. The article highlights biomass utilization research by M.C. Bolding funded by the USDA Agriculture and Forestry Research Initiative. Featured in the Virginia Tech daily email on July 11, 2019, and distributed to several dozen media outlets and forestry professional associations and agencies. https://vtnews.vt.edu/articles/2019/06/cnre-forest-residues-grant.html
  • Member of the editorial board of the International Journal of Forest Engineering, published by the Forest Products Society in association with Taylor and Francis. February 2014 – Present.
  • Member of the editorial board of Forest Science, published by the Society of American Foresters, as an applied research Associate Editor for the areas of Harvesting, Engineering, and Utilization. January 2014 – Present.
  • 2012-2013 Outstanding Faculty Award, Department of Forest Resources and Environmental Conservation, Virginia Tech